HP ProLiant DL380 G5 Tuning Guide

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This hardware was generously donated by HP.

Contents

Upcoming tests

Linux Tunables:

  • SLUB vs. SLAB (memory management)
  • stats_targets (dbt3/tpc-h dependent)
  • I/O Elevators
  • SCSI controller tuning (might not be possible)
  • physical disk partitioning

Postgres GUCs:

  • number of connections

Memory

  • shared_buffers

WAL

  • checkpoint_segments
  • checkpoint_completion_target
  • turning archive_mode on and just a vanilla copy

Planner

  • effective cache size
  • auto vacuum
  • random_page_cost
  • should we look at these?
#cpu_tuple_cost = 0.01                  # same scale as above
#cpu_index_tuple_cost = 0.005           # same scale as above
#cpu_operator_cost = 0.0025             # same scale as above
  • default_statistics_target = 10 # range 1-1000

Hardware Details

  • 2 x Quad Core Intel(R) Xeon(R) E5405 (2.00GHz, 1333MHz FSB, 80W) Processor
  • HP 32GB Fully Buffered DIMM PC2-5300 8x4GB DR LP Memory
  • HP Smart Array P800 Controller
  • 8 x HP 72GB Hot Plug 2.5 SAS 15,000 rpm Hard Drive
  • MSA70 with 25 x HP 72GB Hot Plug 2.5 SAS 15,000 rpm Hard Drive


Software Details

  • 2.6.28-gentoo (Gentoo)

Hardware Baseline

fio

We will use fio v1.23 to get some simple system characteristics using the internal disks of the system on various file systems, software and hardware raid configurations, and volume management configurations. 5 simple tests will be run: a sequential read, sequential write, random read, random write, and read-write test.

sequential read

[seq-read]
rw=read
size=56g
directory=/test
fadvise_hint=0
blocksize=8k
direct=0
numjobs=1
nrfiles=1
runtime=1h
time_based
exec_prerun=echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches

sequential write

[seq-write]
rw=write
size=56g
directory=/test
fadvise_hint=0
blocksize=8k
direct=0
numjobs=1
nrfiles=1
time_based
runtime=1h
exec_prerun=echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches

random read

[random-read]
rw=randread
size=7g
directory=/test
fadvise_hint=0
blocksize=8k
direct=0
numjobs=8
nrfiles=1
runtime=1h
time_based
exec_prerun=echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches

random write

[random-write]
rw=randwrite
size=7g
directory=/test
fadvise_hint=0
blocksize=8k
direct=0
numjobs=8
; this is number of files total per process
nrfiles=1
runtime=1h
time_based
exec_prerun=echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches

read-write

[read-write]
rw=rw
rwmixread=50
size=7g
directory=/test
fadvise_hint=0
blocksize=8k
direct=0
numjobs=8
nrfiles=1
runtime=1h
time_based
exec_prerun=echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches

Results

One Disk

Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - No partition table
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 57.9 89.0 2.3 6.6 8.0/5.6
ext2-noatime 59.4 92.0 2.3 6.5 8.0/6.8
ext3 59.4 81.8 2.3 22.8 8.2/7.0
ext3 (noatime)
ext3 (data=journal) 61.4 72.4 2.3 11.0 7.5/7.5
ext3 (data=journal,noatime} 60.8 71.2 2.3 11.0 7.5/7.5
jfs 65.4 97.0 2.3 4.8 8.2/7.0
jfs (noatime) 65.5 95.0 2.3 4.8 6.8/8.0
xfs 71.9 96.2 * * *
xfs (noatime) 68.8 96.3 2.3 * *
  • - Test did not complete successfully.

Two Disks

Software Raid

Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 0 (64KB chunk) - No partition table
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 87.0 177.0 4.2 11.9 13.6/13.6
ext2-noatime 80.2 180.0 4.3 12.0 13.4/13.4
ext3 86.2 158 4.2 38.1 17.8/9.0
ext3 (noatime) 88.2 161.0 4.3 39.6 13.4/13.4
ext3 (data=journal) 85.8 83.0 4.2 17.1 7.9/13.9
ext3 (data=journal,noatime) 87.6 83.4 4.2 17.1 10.3/14.4
jfs 88.0 181 4.1 7.9 14.1/18.8
jfs (noatime) 88.7 175 4.3 7.8 16.4/16.8
reiserfs 96.2 116 4.3 64.5 13.6/18.2
reiserfs (noatime) 92.6 114 4.3 64.5 16.0/11.4

Hardware Raid

Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 0 (128KB stripe) - No partition table
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 78.8 166.0 4.3 12.0 17.8/13.4
ext2-noatime 78.9 170.0 4.3 12.0 13.4/15.6
ext3 73.9 82.5 4.3 41.0 13.0/13.0
ext3 (noatime) 74.5 77.5 4.3 48.0 15.2/11.0
ext3 (data=journal) 78.9 75.9 4.3 16.6 15.8/15.8
ext3 (data=journal,noatime) 78.0 75.9 4.3 16.4 13.8/9.9
jfs 78.8 128.0 4.4 8.0 16.2/15.9
jfs (noatime) 79.3 133.0 4.4 8.0 18.2/11.5
reiserfs 75 115 4.32 61.2 13.1/10.1
reiserfs (noatime) ND ND ND ND ND

LVM

Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - 4MB Stripesize - No partition table
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 136.0 186.0 4.5 11.9 26.4/26.4
ext2 (noatime) 137.0 190.0 4.5 12.1 23.2/23.2
ext3 129.0 161.0 4.5 38.9 12.8/22.8
ext3 (noatime) 136.0 169.0 4.5 38.4 26.2/19.9
ext3 (data=journal) 135.0 90.4 4.4 16.6 15.2/21.2
ext3 (data=journal,noatime) 137.0 89.6 4.5 16.9 21.2/15.2
jfs 148.0 180.0 4.5 7.9 17.9/25.0
jfs (noatime) 147.0 180.0 4.5 8.1 24.9/21.4

Three Disks

Software RAID

Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 5 (4MB chunk) - No partition table
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 200.0 43.1 5.8 4.2 8.2/9.9
ext2 (noatime) 200.0 43.3 5.8 4.2 11.5/9.9
ext3 199.0 45.6 5.7 9.6 24.0/24.0
ext3 (noatime) 201.0 46.3 5.7 9.5 4.7/12.6
ext3 (data=journal) 199.0 24.3 5.8 4.7 4.7/7.3
ext3 (data=journal,noatime) 200.0 24.4 5.8 4.6 6.1/8.5
jfs 218.0 43.2 5.8 2.7 12.0/12.0
jfs (noatime) 218.0 43.3 5.9 2.7 6.9/12.1
Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 5 (4MB chunk) - 8192KB readahead buffer - No partition table
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 199.0 42.6 5.2 4.2 9.9/9.9

Hardware RAID

Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 5 - No partition table
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 [1] 164.0 5.6 6.2 7.0/8.4
ext2 (noatime) 108.0 169.0 5.6 6.2 9.3/9.3
ext3 104.0 129.0 5.5 23.5 7.9/9.2
ext3 (noatime) 94.6 131.0 5.5 23.6 8.1/9.4
ext3 (data=journal) 107.0 79.2 5.5 9.7 8.0/5.4
ext3 (data=journal,noatime) 108.0 79.0 5.5 9.4 5.3/8.0
jfs 105.0 179.0 5.3 4.6 10.0/8.6
jfs (noatime) 104.0 179.0 5.6 4.5 8.6/8.6
reiserfs 108.0 76.5 5.6 58.8 8.3/9/7
reiserfs (noatime) 109.0 75.3 5.6 59.0 9.7/8.5
Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 5 (256KB stripe) - No partition table
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 113.0 170.0 5.8 6.4 10.9/7.9
ext2 (noatime) 103.0 169.0 5.8 6.3 12.4/9.4
ext3 106.0 131.0 5.7 21.0 11.7/10.0
ext3 (noatime) 112.0 135.0 5.7 21.4 11.9/10.4
ext3 (data=journal) 112.0 74.8 5.7 8.0 11.7/10.3
ext3 (data=journal,noatime) 112.0 74.2 5.8 8.1 11.7/5.8
ext3 (data=writeback) 113.0 135.0 5.7 5.2 11.0/3.1
jfs 110.0 178.0 5.5 4.4 9.5/11.1
jfs (noatime) 110.0 172.0 5.8 4.5 9.8/9.5
reiserfs 114.0 92.6 5.8 58.3 10.8/12.3
reiserfs (noatime) 112.0 78.7 5.8 58.6 6.5/12.3
Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 5 (256KB stripe) - 1 whole disk partition
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 113.0 171.0 5.8 6.3 7.8/10.9
ext2 (noatime) 108.0 169.0 5.8 6.3 7.8/10.9
ext3 109.0 132.0 5.7 21.0 10.5/9.0
ext3 (noatime) 112.0 135.0 5.7 20.9 10.5/9.0
ext3 (data=journal) 113.0 75.4 5.7 8.3 4.4/11.4
ext3 (data=journal,noatime) 113.0 75.4 5.8 8.3 8.9/11.7
jfs 110.0 172.0 5.8 4.5 8.0/11.1
jfs (noatime) 111.0 178.0 5.8 4.6 6.4/9.6
reiserfs 113.0 113.0 5.8 58.4 7.7/10.8
reiserfs (noatime) 114.0 98.0 5.8 59.0 10.8/6.3
Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 5 (256KB stripe) - 256KB readahead
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 124.0 172.0 5.8 6.3 12.8/8.0
ext2 (noatime) 125.0 174.0 5.8 6.3 8.0/11.2
ext3 118.0 131.0 5.7 21.0 10.7/5.1
ext3 (noatime) 119.0 136.0 5.7 21.1 10.7/9.3
ext3 (data=journal) 116.0 73.8 5.7 8.4 10.5/4.6
ext3 (data=journal,noatime) 125.0 74.2 5.2 8.2 10.5/12.0
ext3 (data=writeback) 121.0 134.0 5.7 5.2 6.6/7.9
ext3 (data=writeback,noatime) 118.0 133.0 5.7 5.3 11.1/12.7
jfs 121.0 178.0 5.8 4.6 8.4/9.8
jfs (noatime) 120.0 178.0 5.8 4.5 9.9/9.8
reiserfs 125.0 93.3 5.8 58.4 9.5/12.7
reiserfs (noatime) 131.0 74.0 5.8 58.5 11.1/12.7
Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 5 (256KB stripe) - 512KB readahead
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 156.0 167.0 5.8 6.3 6.6/8.3
ext2 (noatime) 141.0 171.0 5.8 6.4 11.6/9.9
ext3 154.0 133.0 5.7 21.2 6.3/11.0
ext3 (noatime) 155.0 132.0 5.2 20.7 9.5/12.6
ext3 (data=journal) 156.0 76.1 5.7 8.3 12.4/9.3
ext3 (data=journal,noatime) 155.0 74.8 5.8 8.4 12.4/9.4
ext3 (data=writeback) 163.0 132.0 5.7 5.2 10.9/9.3
ext3 (data=writeback,noatime) 154.0 132.0 5.2 5.2 9.8/8.2
jfs 169.0 179.0 5.5 4.6 10.1/10.1
jfs (noatime) 170.0 178.0 5.8 4.5 11.8/11.8
reiserfs 161.0 95.7 5.8 58.5 9.8/9.8
reiserfs (noatime) 163.0 69.3 5.8 58.5 5.1/11.5
Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 5 (256KB stripe) - 1024KB readahead
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 171.0 172.0 5.8 6.3 12.0/8.5
ext2 (noatime) 173.0 171.0 5.8 6.3 10.2/13.6
ext3 172.0 136.0 5.7 21.3 11.6/9.8
ext3 (noatime) 175.0 133.0 5.8 20.8 8.2/13.1
ext3 (data=journal) 172.0 75.5 5.8 8.2 4.8/11.3
ext3 (data=journal,noatime) 171.0 75.3 5.8 8.3 12.4/9.4
ext3 (data=writeback) 178.0 135.0 5.7 5.2 11.4/9.7
ext3 (data=writeback,noatime) 181.0 133.0 5.7 5.2 6.7/13.5
jfs 188.0 172.0 5.8 4.4 14.0/10.5
jfs (noatime) 187.0 178.0 5.5 4.3 14.0/12.3
reiserfs 185.0 104.0 5.8 58.4 13.6/3.4
reiserfs (noatime) 187.0 81.0 5.8 58.6 10.2/8.5
Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 5 (256KB stripe) - 2048KB readahead
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 174.0 172.0 5.8 6.3 9.9/6.6
ext2 (noatime) 171.0 165.0 5.8 6.3 8.6/10.4
ext3 172.0 135.0 5.7 20.7 13.3/8.3
ext3 (noatime) 172.0 137.0 5.7 21.2 11.7/11.7
ext3 (data=journal) 173.0 76.1 5.8 8.1 8.2/8.3
ext3 (data=journal,noatime) 173.0 76.7 5.8 8.2 12.7/9.5
ext3 (data=writeback) 173.0 133.0 5.7 5.2 10.3/10.3
ext3 (data=writeback,noatime) 173.0 134.0 5.8 5.2 13.7/8.6
jfs 174.0 173.0 5.8 4.4 12.5/5.4
jfs (noatime) 173.0 178.0 5.8 4.5 12.5/12.5
reiserfs 174.0 113.0 5.8 58.4 12.2/12.2
reiserfs (noatime) 174.0 75.0 5.8 58.6 13.9/12.2
Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 5 (256KB stripe) - 4096KB readahead
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 176.0 170.0 5.8 6.3 13.9/13.9
ext2 (noatime) 187.0 173.0 5.4 6.3 5.4/14.0
ext3 179.0 135.0 5.7 21.1 8.4/13.5
ext3 (noatime) 178.0 133.0 5.7 21.0 8.4/13.5
ext3 (data=journal) 178.0 74.3 5.8 7.9 11.3/9.7
ext3 (data=journal,noatime) 177.0 76.0 5.8 8.2 8.4/11.7
ext3 (data=writeback) 175.0 134.0 5.7 5.2 8.7/12.1
ext3 (data=writeback,noatime) 186.0 133.0 5.2 5.2 7.0/12.1
jfs 185.0 172.0 5.8 4.5 12.7/12.8
jfs (noatime) 185.0 172.0 5.8 4.5 9.1/14.5
reiserfs 188.0 82.6 5.8 58.6 14.0/12.3
reiserfs (noatime) 191.0 88.5 5.8 58.3 8.9/12.3
Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 5 (256KB stripe) - 8192KB readahead
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 183.0 170.0 5.8 6.3 7.0/12.3
ext2 (noatime) 183.0 171.0 5.8 6.3 8.8/8.8
ext3 177.0 136.0 5.7 21.2 10.2/11.9
ext3 (noatime) 174.0 134.0 5.7 21.1 8.6/11.9
ext3 (data=journal) 171.0 75.7 5.7 8.2 5.1/11.8
ext3 (data=journal,noatime) 185.0 76.1 5.8 7.9 11.8/11.8
ext3 (data=writeback) 185.0 131.0 5.7 5.2 8.7/12.2
ext3 (data=writeback,noatime) 186.0 131.0 5.7 5.2 13.9/10.4
jfs 193.0 172.0 5.8 4.5 9.2/12.8
jfs (noatime) 194.0 172.0 5.8 4.5 11.0/9.2
reiserfs 194.0 98.0 5.8 58.6 12.8/12.7
reiserfs (noatime) 195.0 92.3 5.8 58.7 14.3/12.5
Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 5 (256KB stripe) - 128MB readahead
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 183.0 168.0 5.8 6.3 13.4/10.9
ext2 (noatime) 187.0 162.0 5.8 6.3 12.9/9.2
ext3 173.0 132.0 5.7 21.1 12.0/8.7
ext3 (noatime) 168.0 135.0 5.8 20.8 7.0/12.0
ext3 (data=journal) 184.0 73.9 5.7 8.1 8.4/10.1
ext3 (data=journal,noatime) 182.0 76.0 5.8 8.3 11.8/8.4
ext3 (data=writeback) 180.0 133.0 5.7 5.2 11.3/7.3
ext3 (data=writeback,noatime) 181.0 135.0 5.7 5.2 11.0/7.6
jfs 204.0 172.0 5.8 4.5 8.0/15.6
jfs (noatime) 204.0 173.0 5.8 4.4 15.6/9.7
reiserfs 199.0 83.6 5.8 58.7 13.3/13.3
reiserfs (noatime) 199.0 113.0 5.8 58.4 11.4/13.3

Four Disks

Software RAID

Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 10 (4MB chunk) - No partition table
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 262.0 178.1 7.8 54.9 20.0/28.0
ext2 (noatime) 262.0 183.0 6.9 56.9 26.5/19.8
ext3 168.0 140.0 7.6 28.2 22.8/27.4
ext3 (noatime) 269.0 135.0 7.8 28.2 23.3/24.1
ext3 (data=journal) 262.0 61.7 7.6 11.1 19.1/19.1
ext3 (data=journal,noatime) 263.0 61.5 7.8 10.0 19.0/15.8
jfs 329.0 162.0 7.8 7.2 25.3/25.3
jfs (noatime) 328.0 163.0 7.8 7.3 33.7/21.0
reiserfs 316.0 88.0 7.6 32.4 24.3/28.5
reiserfs (noatime) 318.0 84.6 7.8 32.3 20.1/28.2
Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 10 (4MB chunk) - No partition table
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 239.0 179.0 7.8 55.7 27.2/23.8

Hardware RAID

Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 10 (128KB stripe) - No partition table
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 132.0 170.0 7.5 11.5 16.5/18.7
ext2 (noatime) 131.0 172.0 7.6 11.9 16.5/18.7
ext3 127.0 115.0 7.4 40.5 6.7/15.7
ext3 (noatime) 127.0 115.0 7.5 40.7 14.0/14.0
ext3 (data=journal) 132.0 73.2 7.5 17.3 10.7/14.9
ext3 (data=journal,noatime) 127.0 115.5 7.5 40.7 14.0/14.0
jfs 135.0 145.0 7.6 32.4 24.3/28.5
jfs (noatime) 137.0 148.0 7.6 8.1 12.8/12.6
reiserfs 127.0 62.1 7.5 59.3 17.0/17.4
reiserfs (noatime) 130.0 63.9 7.6 59.5 17.0/15.2
Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 10 (256KB stripe) - No partition table
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 123.0 170.0 7.6 11.7 20.6/18.1
ext2 (noatime) 122.0 172.0 7.6 11.7 15.5/15.5
ext3 117.0 122.0 7.5 38.5 17.0/12.9
ext3 (noatime) 112.0 104.0 7.6 38.9 19.5/14.7
ext3 (data=journal) 122.0 71.4 7.6 16.8 13.3/11.1
ext3 (data=journal,noatime) 122.0 69.8 7.6 16.9 13.3/15.5
jfs 122.0 146.0 7.7 8.0 18.2/13.0
jfs (noatime) 123.0 146.0 7.7 8.0 18.3/15.7
reiserfs 120.0 67.2 7.6 59.7 13.0/20.3
reiserfs (noatime) 120.0 75.1 7.7 59.4 17.8/15.3
Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 10 (128KB stripe) - Using 1 whole disk partition
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 131.0 172.0 7.6 11.5 15.1/12.3
ext2 (noatime) 131.0 172.0 7.6 11.6 9.9/19.9
ext3 127.0 115.0 7.4 40.1 16.3/9.3
ext3 (noatime) 129.0 114.0 7.4 40.0 16.3/16.3
ext3 (data=journal) 131.0 73.0 7.5 17.2 12.8/13.1
ext3 (data=journal,noatime) 131.0 74.1 7.5 17.0 12.8/14.9
jfs 133.0 148.0 7.6 8.2 20.2/12.6
jfs (noatime) 134.0 149.0 7.6 7.8 20.3/15.2
reiserfs 126.0 58.7 7.5 59.7 17.0/17.4
reiserfs (noatime) 129.0 61.6 7.6 59.0 19.5/12.2
Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 10 (256KB stripe) - 512KB readahead buffer.
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 159.0 173.0 7.6 11.6 19.8/15.1
ext2-noatime 158.0 170.0 7.6 11.7 17.0/19.8
ext3 155.0 120.0 7.5 38.7 12.1/12.1
ext3-journal 157.0 71.9 7.6 16.9 11.4/16.0
ext3-journal-noatime 146.0 70.2 7.6 16.7 11.4/15.9
ext3-noatime 157.0 122.0 7.5 38.6 17.6/20.1
ext3-writeback 157.0 117.0 7.6 7.7 17.3/10.2
ext3-writeback-noatime 158.0 118.0 7.6 7.2 17.2/12.3
jfs 161.0 150.0 7.7 8.2 14.4/17.3
jfs-noatime 166.0 150.0 7.3 8.3 14.4/17.3
reiserfs 158.0 65.8 7.6 59.6 17.9/17.4
reiserfs-noatime 162.0 76.2 7.7 60.3 14.9/12.4
Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 10 (256KB stripe) - 1024KB readahead buffer.
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 163.0 172.0 7.6 11.6 21.0/15.0
ext2-noatime 164.0 169.0 7.6 11.7 15.5/15.0
ext3 163.0 121.0 7.6 39.1 15.5/15.5
ext3-journal 161.0 72.1 7.6 17.1 17.5/8.8
ext3-journal-noatime 162.0 71.2 7.6 16.6 15.4/11.3
ext3-noatime 163.0 127.0 7.6 38.1 13.0/18.2
ext3-writeback 161.0 118.0 7.6 7.7 20.6/15.5
ext3-writeback-noatime 161.0 118.0 7.6 7.3 18.1/18.1
jfs 171.0 146.0 7.7 8.0 22.2/25.4
jfs-noatime 169.0 150.0 7.3 8.2 25.4/15.9
reiserfs 167.0 63.8 7.6 59.3 18.2/18.2
reiserfs-noatime 170.0 68.9 7.7 59.8 18.2/18.2
Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 10 (256KB stripe) - 2048KB readahead buffer.
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 169.0 171.0 7.6 11.5 12.5/24.9
ext2-noatime 168.0 171.0 7.6 11.6 15.9/22.5
ext3 169.0 117.0 7.5 38.9 15.7/15.7
ext3-journal 168.0 69.4 6.9 17.1 11.1/15.6
ext3-journal-noatime 168.0 71.6 7.6 17.4 13.5/11.1
ext3-noatime 168.0 125.0 7.6 38.9 15.7/15.8
ext3-writeback 165.0 118.0 6.9 7.6 16.0/18.6
ext3-writeback-noatime 168.0 120.0 7.6 7.7 15.9/13.2
jfs 174.0 147.0 7.7 8.3 23.5/23.5
jfs-noatime 170.0 150.0 7.7 7.9 20.2/20.2
reiserfs 172.0 62.5 7.6 60.0 16.9/13.5
reiserfs-noatime 173.0 64.6 7.7 59.5 16.7/16.1
Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 10 (256KB stripe) - 4096KB readahead buffer.
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 174.0 172.0 7.6 11.6 22.9/19.6
ext2-noatime 173.0 171.0 7.6 11.6 18.4/18.4
ext3 174.0 122.0 7.6 38.7 16.7/17.1
ext3-journal 174.0 71.3 7.6 16.7 11.3/18.1
ext3-journal-noatime 172.0 70.9 7.6 16.8 15.4/17.6
ext3-noatime 173.0 123.0 7.6 38.3 19.1/13.6
ext3-writeback 174.0 117.0 7.6 7.4 13.8/19.3
ext3-writeback-noatime 173.0 117.0 7.6 7.6 16.6/13.8
jfs 178.0 146.0 7.7 8.1 27.5/17.2
jfs-noatime 174.0 150.0 7.7 8.2 20.6/24.1
reiserfs 178.0 82.9 7.6 59.6 19.7/19.7
reiserfs-noatime 178.0 67.1 7.7 59.4 17.0/22.6
Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 10 (256KB stripe) - 8192KB readahead buffer.
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
ext2 172.0 172.0 6.9 11.6 19.9/23.2
ext2-noatime 170.0 172.0 7.6 11.6 23.2/20.0
ext3 173.0 118.0 7.6 39.1 11.3/16.8
ext3-journal 171.0 71.5 7.6 16.8 13.6/11.4
ext3-journal-noatime 171.0 70.7 7.6 16.8 13.6/11.3
ext3-noatime 174.0 119.0 7.6 38.8 19.8/17.0
ext3-writeback 171.0 119.0 7.6 7.3 16.6/19.5
ext3-writeback-noatime 171.0 117.0 7.6 7.3 14.1/22.3
jfs 188.0 149.0 7.3 8.3 17.5/24.4
jfs-noatime 187.0 150.0 7.7 8.2 17.4/20.9
reiserfs 185.0 62.6 7.6 60.1 23.0/11.5
reiserfs-noatime 186.0 73.1 7.7 59.9 11.6/23.0
Aggregate Bandwidth (MB/s) - RAID 10 (256KB stripe) - 128MB readahead buffer.
sequential read sequential write random read random write read-write
reiserfs 189.0 67.5 7.6 60.0 14.4/17.2
reiserfs-noatime 188.0 73.3 7.7 59.6 20.1/17.2

Analysis

Hardware vs. Software Raid

Sequential Writes

Total Processor Utilization (%) x Throughput (MB/s)
One Disk Two Disk Software RAID-0 (64KB stripe) Two Disk Hardware RAID-0 (128KB stripe) LVM (4MB stripe) Three Disk Software RAID-5 (4MB stripe) Three Disk Hardware RAID-5 (128KB stripe) Three Disk Hardware RAID-5 (256KB stripe) Three Disk Hardware RAID-5 (256KB stripe) w/ partition table Four Disk Software RAID-10 (4MB stripe) Four Disk Hardware RAID-10 (128KB stripe) Four Disk Hardware RAID-10 (256KB stripe) Four Disk Hardware RAID-10 (128KB stripe) w/ partition table
ext2 50-100 | 89.0 70-95 | 177.0 30 | 166.0 40 | 186.0 30 | 43.1 50 | 164.0 40 | 170.0 40 | 171.0 60-100 | 178.1 30 | 170.0 30 | 170.0 30 | 172.0

Readahead Buffer Size

The readahead buffer size can be set per device by using the 'blockdev' tool as part of the util-linux package. For example, the command is 'blockdev --setra <blocks>'. Note that a block is 512 bytes. 'man blockdev' for more info.

Hardware RAID

Sequential Read (MB/s) - 256KB stripe - ext2
readahead buffer size 128KB 256KB 512KB 1024KB 2048KB 4096KB 8192KB 128MB
RAID-5 113 124 156 171 174 176 183 183

Presentations

Data used for these presentation are publicly available in a git repository: http://git.postgresql.org/gitweb?p=performance-tuning.git

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