What's new in PostgreSQL 9.1

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This document showcases many of the latest developments in PostgreSQL 9.1, compared to the last major release – PostgreSQL 9.0. There are many improvements in this release, so this wiki page covers many of the more important changes in detail. The full list of changes is itemised in Release Notes.


Major new features

Synchronous replication and other replication features

There are quite a lot of new features around replication in 9.1:

  • In 9.0, the user used for replication had to be a superuser. It's no longer the case, there is a new 'replication' privilege.
 CREATE ROLE replication_role REPLICATION LOGIN PASSWORD 'pwd_replication'

This role can then be added to the pg_hba.conf to be used for streaming replication. It's better, from a security point of view, than having a superuser role doing this job.

Now that we have a cluster and created our replication user, we can set the database up for streaming replication. It's a matter of adding the permission to connect to the virtual replication database in pg_hba.conf, setting up wal_level, archiving (archive_mode, archive_command) and max_wal_senders, and has been covered in the 9.0 documentation.

When our database cluster is ready for streaming, we can demo the second new feature.

  • pg_basebackup.

This new tool is used to create a clone of a database, or a backup, using only the streaming replication features. There is no need to call pg_start_backup(), then copy the database manually and call pg_stop_backup(). pg_basebackup does all in one command. We'll clone the running database to /tmp/newcluster:

 > pg_basebackup -D /tmp/newcluster -U replication -v
 NOTICE:  pg_stop_backup complete, all required WAL segments have been archived
 pg_basebackup: base backup completed

This new database is ready to start: just add a recovery.conf file with a restore_command to retrieve archived WAL files, and start the new cluster. pg_basebackup can also create tar backups, or include all required xlog files (to get a standalone backup).

As we're going to now demo streaming replication with synchronous commit, we'll setup a recovery.conf to connect to the master database and stream changes.

We'll create a recovery.conf containing something like this:

 restore_command = 'cp /tmp/%f %p'               # e.g. 'cp /mnt/server/archivedir/%f %p'
 standby_mode = on
 primary_conninfo = 'host=localhost port=59121 user=replication password=replication application_name=newcluster'            # e.g. 'host=localhost port=5432'
 trigger_file = '/tmp/trig_f_newcluster'

Then we'll start the new cluster:

 pg_ctl -D /tmp/newcluster start
 LOG:  database system was interrupted; last known up at 2011-05-22 17:15:45 CEST
 LOG:  entering standby mode
 LOG:  restored log file "00000001000000010000002F" from archive
 LOG:  redo starts at 1/2F000020
 LOG:  consistent recovery state reached at 1/30000000
 LOG:  database system is ready to accept read only connections
 cp: cannot stat « /tmp/000000010000000100000030 »: No such file or directory
 LOG:  streaming replication successfully connected to primary

Ok, now we have a slave, streaming from the master, but we're still asynchronous. Notice that we set application_name in the connection string in recovery.conf.

  • Synchronous replication

To get synchronous, just change, in the master's postgresql.conf:

 synchronous_standby_names = 'newcluster'

This is the application_name from our primary_conninfo from the slave. Just do a pg_ctl reload, and this new parameter will be set. Now any commit on the master will only be reported as committed on the master when the slave has written it on its on journal, and acknowledged it to the master.

A word of warning: transactions are considered committed when they are applied to the slave's journal, not when they are visible on the slave. It means there will still be a delay between the moment a transaction is committed on the master, and the moment it is visible on the slave. This still is synchronous replication because no data will be lost if the master crashes.

One of the really great features of synchronous replication is that it is controllable per session. The parameter synchronous_commit can be turned off (it is on by default) in a session, if it does not require this synchronous guarantee. If you don't need it in your transaction, just do a

 SET synchronous_commit TO off

and you wont pay the penalty.

There are other new replication features for PostgreSQL 9.1:

  • The slaves can now ask the master not to vacuum records they still need.

It was a major setup problem with 9.0: a vacuum could destroy records that were still necessary to running queries on the slave, triggering replication conflicts. The slave then had to make a choice: kill the running query, or accept deferring the application of the modifications, and lag behind. One could work around this by setting vacuum_defer_cleanup_age to a non-zero value, but it was quite hard to get a correct value for it. This new feature is enabled with the parameter hot_standby_feedback, on the standby databases. Of course, this means that the standby can prevent VACUUM from doing a correct maintenance on the master, if there are very long running queries on the slave.

  • pg_stat_replication is a new system view.

It displays, on the master, the status of all slaves: how much WAL they received, if they are connected, synchronous, what they did replay:

 =# SELECT * from pg_stat_replication ;
  procpid | usesysid |   usename   | application_name | client_addr | client_hostname | client_port |        backend_start         |   state   | sent_location | write_location | flush_location | replay_location | sync_priority | sync_state 
    17135 |    16671 | replication | newcluster       |   |                 |       43745 | 2011-05-22 18:13:04.19283+02 | streaming | 1/30008750    | 1/30008750     | 1/30008750     | 1/30008750      |             1 | sync

There is no need to query the slaves anymore to know their status relative to the master.

  • pg_stat_database_conflicts is another new system view.

This one is on the standby database, and shows how many queries have been cancelled, and for what reasons:

 =# SELECT * from pg_stat_database_conflicts ;
  datid |  datname  | confl_tablespace | confl_lock | confl_snapshot | confl_bufferpin | confl_deadlock 
      1 | template1 |                0 |          0 |              0 |               0 |              0
  11979 | template0 |                0 |          0 |              0 |               0 |              0
  11987 | postgres  |                0 |          0 |              0 |               0 |              0
  16384 | marc      |                0 |          0 |              1 |               0 |              0
  • replication can now be easily paused on a slave.

Just call pg_xlog_replay_pause() to pause, pg_xlog_replay_resume() to resume. This will freeze the database, making it a very good tool to do consistent backups.

pg_is_xlog_replay_paused() can be used to know the current status.

Log replay can also now be paused at the end of a database recovery without putting the database into production, to give the administrator the opportunity to query the database. The administrator can then check if the recovery point reached is correct, before ending recovery. This new parameter is pause_at_recovery_target, in recovery.conf.

  • Restore points can now be created.

They are just named addresses in the transaction journal.

They can then be used by specifying a recovery_target_name, instead of a recovery_target_time or a recovery_target_xid in the recovery.conf file.

They are created by calling pg_create_restore_point().

Per-column collations

The collation order is not unique in a database anymore.

Let's say you were using a 9.0 database, with an UTF8 encoding and a de_DE.utf8 collation (alphabetical sort) order, because most of your users speak German. If you had to store french data too, and had to sort, some french users could have been disappointed:

 SELECT * from (values ('élève'),('élevé'),('élever'),('Élève')) as tmp order by column1;

It's not that bad, but it's not the french collation order: accentuated (diactric) characters are considered equal on first pass to the unaccentuated characters. Then, on a second pass, they are considered to be after the unaccentuated ones. Except that on that second pass, the letters are considered from the end to the beginning of the word. That's a bit strange, but that's the french collation rules…

With 9.1, two new features are available:

  • You can specify collation at query time:
 SELECT * FROM (VALUES ('élève'),('élevé'),('élever'),('Élève')) AS tmp ORDER BY column1 COLLATE "fr_FR.utf8";
  • You can specify collation at table definition time:
 CREATE TABLE french_messages (message TEXT COLLATE "fr_FR.utf8");
 INSERT INTO french_messages VALUES ('élève'),('élevé'),('élever'),('Élève');
 SELECT * FROM french_messages ORDER BY message;

And of course you can create an index on the message column, that can be used for fast french sorting. For instance, using a table with more data and without collation defined:

 CREATE TABLE french_messages2 (message TEXT); -- no collation here
 INSERT INTO french_messages2 SELECT * FROM french_messages, generate_series(1,100000); -- 400k rows
 CREATE INDEX idx_french_ctype ON french_messages2 (message COLLATE "fr_FR.utf8");
 EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM french_messages2 ORDER BY message;
                                   QUERY PLAN                                   
  Sort  (cost=62134.28..63134.28 rows=400000 width=32)
    Sort Key: message
    ->  Seq Scan on french_messages2  (cost=0.00..5770.00 rows=400000 width=32)
 EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM french_messages2 ORDER BY message COLLATE "fr_FR.utf8";
                                             QUERY PLAN                                            
  Index Scan using idx_french_ctype on french_messages2  (cost=0.00..17139.15 rows=400000 width=8)

Unlogged Tables

These can be used for ephemeral data. An unlogged table is much faster to write, but won't survive a crash (it will be truncated at database restart in case of a crash).

They don't have the WAL maintenance overhead, so they are much faster to write to.

Here is a (non-realistic) example:

 # CREATE TABLE test (a int);
 # CREATE UNLOGGED table testu (a int);
 # CREATE INDEX idx_test on test (a);
 # CREATE INDEX idx_testu on testu (a );
 =# \timing 
 Timing is on.
 =# INSERT INTO test SELECT generate_series(1,1000000);
 INSERT 0 1000000
 Time: 17601,201 ms
 =# INSERT INTO testu SELECT generate_series(1,1000000);
 INSERT 0 1000000
 Time: 3439,982 ms

These table are very efficient for caching data, or for anything that can be rebuilt in case of a crash.


This item and the following one are another occasion to present several features in one go. We'll need to install pg_trgm, and it is now an extension.

Let's first install pg_trgm. Until 9.0, we had to run a script manually, the command looked like this:

 \i /usr/local/pgsql/share/contrib/pg_trgm.sql

This was a real maintenance problem: the created functions defaulted to the public schema, were dumped "as is" in pg_dump files, often didn't restore correctly as they depended on external binary objects, or could change definitions between releases.

With 9.1, one can use the CREATE EXTENSION command:

     [ WITH ] [ SCHEMA schema ]
              [ VERSION version ]
              [ FROM old_version ]

Most important options are extension_name, of course, and schema: extensions can be stored in a schema.

So let's install the pg_trgm for the next example:

 =# CREATE schema extensions;
 =# CREATE EXTENSION pg_trgm WITH SCHEMA extensions;

Now, pg_trgm is installed in an 'extensions' schema. It will be included in database dumps correctly, with the CREATE EXTENSION syntax. So if anything changes in the extension, this extension will be restored with the new definition.

One can get the list of extensions under psql:

                                     List of installed extensions
    Name   | Version |   Schema   |                            Description                            
  pg_trgm  | 1.0     | extensions | text similarity measurement and index searching based on trigrams
  plpgsql  | 1.0     | pg_catalog | PL/pgSQL procedural language
 (2 rows)

K-Nearest-Neighbor Indexing

GIST indexes can now be used to return sorted rows, if a 'distance' has a meaning and can be defined for the data type. For now, this work has been done for the point datatype, the pg_trgm contrib, and many btree_gist datatypes. This feature is available for all datatypes to use, so there will probably be more in the near future.

For now, here is an example with pg_trgm. pg_trgm uses trigrams to compare strings. Here are the trigrams for the 'hello' string:

 SELECT show_trgm('hello');
  {"  h"," he",ell,hel,llo,"lo "}

Trigrams are used to evaluate similarity (between 0 and 1) between strings. So there is a notion of distance, with distance defined as '1-similarity'.

Here is an example using pg_trgm. The table contains 5 million text records, for 750MB.

 CREATE TABLE test_trgm ( text_data text);
 CREATE INDEX test_trgm_idx on test_trgm using gist (text_data extensions.gist_trgm_ops);

Until 9.0, if we wanted the 2 closest text_data to hello from the table, here was the query:

 SELECT text_data, similarity(text_data, 'hello')
 FROM test_trgm 
 WHERE text_data % 'hello'
 ORDER BY similarity(text_data, 'hello')

On the test database, it takes around 2 seconds to complete.

With 9.1 and KNN, one can write:

 SELECT text_data, text_data <-> 'hello'
 FROM test_trgm 
 ORDER BY text_data <-> 'hello'

The <-> operator is the distance operator. It runs in 20ms, using the index to directly retrieve the 2 best records.

While we're talking about pg_trgm, another new feature is that the LIKE and ILIKE operators can now automatically make use of a trgm index. Still using the same table:

 SELECT text_data
 FROM test_trgm
 WHERE text_data like '%hello%';

uses the test_trgm_idx index (instead of scanning the whole table).

Serializable Snapshot Isolation

This feature is very useful if you need all your transactions to behave as if they are running serially, without sacrificing too much throughput, as is currently the case with other 'serializable' isolation implementations (this is usually done by locking every record accessed).

As is it quite complex to demonstrate correctly, here is a link to a full explanation of this feature: http://wiki.postgresql.org/wiki/SSI

TODO: the SSI documentation always concludes with a commit. It may be confusing to the reader.

Writeable Common Table Expressions

This extends the WITH syntax introduced in 8.4. Now, data modification queries can be put in the WITH part of the query, and the returned data used later.

Let's say we want to archive all records matching %hello% from our test_trgm table:

 CREATE TABLE old_text_data (text_data text);
 WITH deleted AS (DELETE FROM test_trgm WHERE text_data like '%hello%' RETURNING text_data)
 INSERT INTO old_text_data SELECT * FROM deleted;

All in one query.

As a more ambitious example, the following query updates a pgbench database, deleting a bunch of erroneous transactions and updating all related teller, branch, and account totals in a single statement:

 WITH deleted_xtns AS (
 DELETE FROM pgbench_history
 WHERE bid = 4 and tid = 9
 deleted_per_account as (
   SELECT aid, sum(delta) as baldiff 
   FROM deleted_xtns
   accounts_rebalanced as (
     UPDATE pgbench_accounts
     SET abalance = abalance - baldiff
     FROM deleted_per_account
     WHERE deleted_per_account.aid = pgbench_accounts.aid
     RETURNING deleted_per_account.aid, pgbench_accounts.bid,
     branch_adjustment as (
       SELECT bid, SUM(baldiff) as branchdiff
       FROM accounts_rebalanced
       GROUP BY bid
 UPDATE pgbench_branches
 SET bbalance = bbalance - branchdiff
 FROM branch_adjustment
 WHERE branch_adjustment.bid = pgbench_branches.bid
 RETURNING branch_adjustment.bid,branchdiff,bbalance;


     PostgreSQL is the only open source database which integrates with SE-Linux.


PGXN is the PostgreSQL Extension Network, a central distribution system for open-source PostgreSQL extension libraries. Extensions author can submit their work together with metadata describing them: the packages and their documentation are indexed and distributed across several servers. The system can be used via web interface or using command line clients thanks to a simple API.

A comprehensive PGXN client is being developed. It can be installed with:

$ easy_install pgxnclient
Searching for pgxnclient
Best match: pgxnclient 0.2.1
Processing pgxnclient-0.2.1-py2.6.egg
Installed pgxnclient-0.2.1-py2.6.egg

Among the other commands, it allows to search for extensions in the website:

$ pgxn search pair
pair 0.1.3
    ... Usage There are two ways to construct key/value *pairs*: Via the
    *pair*() function: % SELECT *pair*('foo', 'bar'); *pair* ------------
    (foo,bar) Or by using the ~> operator: % SELECT 'foo' ~> 'bar';

semver 0.2.2
    *pair* │ 0.1.0 │ Key/value *pair* data type Note that "0.35.0b1" is less
    than "0.35.0", as required by the specification. Use ORDER BY to get
    more of a feel for semantic version ordering rules: SELECT...

To build them and install in the system:

$ pgxn install pair
INFO: best version: pair 0.1.3
INFO: saving /tmp/tmpezwyEO/pair-0.1.3.zip
INFO: unpacking: /tmp/tmpezwyEO/pair-0.1.3.zip
INFO: building extension
INFO: installing extension
[sudo] password for piro: 
/bin/mkdir -p '/usr/local/pg91b1/share/postgresql/extension'

And to load them as database extensions:

$ pgxn load -d mydb pair
INFO: best version: pair 0.1.3


Support for SQL/MED (Management of External Data) was started with 8.4. But now PostgreSQL can define foreign tables, which is the main purpose of SQL/MED: accessing external data.

See the list of existing Foreign Data Wrapper extensions, which includes Oracle, MySQL, CouchDB, Redis, Twitter, and more.

Here is an example, using the file_fdw extension.

We'll map a CSV file to a table.

 CREATE EXTENSION file_fdw WITH SCHEMA extensions;
 \dx+ file_fdw
           Objects in extension "file_fdw"
                  Object Description                 
  foreign-data wrapper file_fdw
  function extensions.file_fdw_handler()
  function extensions.file_fdw_validator(text[],oid)

This next step is optional. It's just to show the 'CREATE FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER' syntax:

 =# CREATE FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER file_data_wrapper HANDLER extensions.file_fdw_handler;

The extension already creates a foreign data wrapper called file_fdw. We'll use it from now on.

We need to create a 'server'. As we're only retrieving data from a file, it seems to be overkill, but SQL/MED is also capable of coping with remote databases.


Now, let's link a statistical_data.csv file to a statistical_data table:

 CREATE FOREIGN TABLE statistical_data (field1 numeric, field2 numeric) server file options (filename '/tmp/statistical_data.csv', format 'csv', delimiter ';') ;
 marc=# SELECT * from statistical_data ;
  field1 | field2 
     0.1 |    0.2
     0.2 |    0.4
     0.3 |    0.9
     0.4 |    1.6

For now, foreign tables are SELECT-only.

TODO: does this also work with dblink ?

Backward compatibility issues

The next items are to be checked when migrating to 9.1.

  • The default value of standard_conforming_strings changed to on

Traditionally, PostgreSQL didn't treat ordinary string literals ('..') as the SQL standard specifies: backslashes ('\') were considered an escape character, so what was behind it was interpreted. For instance, \n is a newline character, \\ is a backslash character. It is more C-like.

With 9.1, standard_conforming_strings now defaults to on, meaning that ordinary string literals are now treated as the SQL standard specifies. It means that single quotes are to be protected with a second single quote instead of a backslash, and that backslashes aren't an escape character anymore.

So, where previously it would have been 'I can\'t', it now should be 'I can''t'.

There are several things to know:

  • The old syntax is still available. Just put an E in front of the starting quote: E'I can\'t'
  • standard_conforming_strings can still be set to off
  • Many programming languages already do what's correct, as long as you ask them to escape the strings for you. For instance, libpq's PQescapeLiteral detects automatically standard_conforming_strings' value.

Still, double check your program is ready for this.

  • function-style and attribute-style data type casts for composite types is disallowed

Since 8.4, it has been possible to cast almost anything to a text format. Let's try this with the previous foreign table:

 =# SELECT cast(statistical_data as text) from statistical_data ;
 (4 rows)

The problem is that 8.4 and 9.0 gives us 4 syntaxes to do this:

  • SELECT cast(statistical_data as text) from statistical_data ;
  • SELECT statistical_data::text from statistical_data;
  • SELECT statistical_data.text from statistical_data;
  • SELECT text(statistical_data) from statistical_data;

The two latter syntaxes aren't allowed anymore for composite types (such as a table record): they were too easy to accidentally use.

  • Casting checks for domains based on arrays have been tightened

Now, PostgreSQL double-checks when you update an element of a constraint made upon an array.

Here is how it behaved in 9.0:

 =#CREATE DOMAIN test_dom as int[] check (value[1] > 0);
 =#SELECT '{-1,0,0,0,0}'::test_dom;
 ERROR:  value for domain test_dom violates check constraint "test_dom_check"

Okay, that's normal

 =#CREATE TABLE test_dom_table (test test_dom);
 =# INSERT INTO test_dom_table values ('{1,0,0,0,0}');
 =# UPDATE test_dom_table SET test[1]=-1;

This isn't normal… it's not allowed by the check constraint. This is not possible anymore in 9.1, the check is performed correctly.

  • string_to_array() now return an empty array for a zero-length string. Previously this returned NULL.
 =# SELECT string_to_array(,'whatever');
  • string_to_array() now splits splits the string into characters if the separator is NULL. Previously this returned NULL.
 =# SELECT string_to_array('foo',NULL);
  • PL/pgSQL's RAISE without parameters changed

This is a rare case, but one that caught people used to the Oracle way of doing it.

Here is an example:

 CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION raise_demo () returns void language plpgsql as $$
   RAISE NOTICE 'Main body';
     RAISE NOTICE 'Sub-block';
     RAISE EXCEPTION serialization_failure; -- Simulate a problem
   EXCEPTION WHEN serialization_failure THEN
       -- Maybe we had a serialization error
       -- Won't happen here of course
       RAISE DEBUG 'There was probably a serialization failure. It could be because of...';
       -- ..
       -- If I get there let's pretend I couldn't find a solution to the error
       RAISE; -- Let's forward the error
         -- This should capture everything
         RAISE EXCEPTION 'Couldn t figure what to do with the error';


With 9.0, you get this (with client_min_messages set to debug):

 =# SELECT raise_demo();
 NOTICE:  Main body
 NOTICE:  Sub-block
 DEBUG:  There was probably a serialization failure. It could be because of...
 ERROR:  serialization_failure

With 9.1:

 =# SELECT raise_demo();
 NOTICE:  Main body
 NOTICE:  Sub-block
 DEBUG:  There was probably a serialization failure. It could be because of...
 ERROR:  Couldn t figure what to do with the error

The difference is that RAISE without parameters, in 9.0, puts the code flow back to where the EXCEPTION occurred. In 9.1, the RAISE continues in the block where it occurs, so the inner BEGIN block isn't left when the RAISE is triggered. Its exception block is performed.

Performance improvements

  • Synchronous writes have been optimized to less stress the filesystem.

This one is hard to demonstrate. But performance and responsiveness (latency) has been greatly improved on write intensive loads.

  • Inheritance table in queries can now return meaningfully-sorted results, allow optimizations of MIN/MAX for inheritance

If you're using a lot of inheritance, probably in a partitioning context, you're going to love these optimisations.

The query planner got much smarter on the following case.

Let's create a mockup schema:

 =# CREATE TABLE parent (a int);
 =# CREATE TABLE children_1 ( check (a between 1 and 10000000)) inherits (parent);
 =# CREATE TABLE children_2 ( check (a between 10000001 and 20000000)) inherits (parent);
 =# INSERT INTO children_1 select generate_series(1,10000000);
 INSERT 0 10000000
 =# INSERT INTO children_2 select generate_series(10000001,20000000);
 INSERT 0 10000000
 =# CREATE INDEX test_1 ON children_1 (a);
 =# CREATE INDEX test_2 ON children_2 (a);

Let's ask for the 50 biggest values of a.

 SELECT * from parent order by a desc limit 50;

It takes, on this small test machine, 13 seconds on a 9.0 database, and 0.8 ms on a 9.1.

The 9.0 plan is:

  Limit  (cost=952993.36..952993.48 rows=50 width=4)
    ->  Sort  (cost=952993.36..1002999.24 rows=20002354 width=4)
          Sort Key: public.parent.a
          ->  Result  (cost=0.00..288529.54 rows=20002354 width=4)
                ->  Append  (cost=0.00..288529.54 rows=20002354 width=4)
                      ->  Seq Scan on parent  (cost=0.00..34.00 rows=2400 width=4)
                      ->  Seq Scan on children_1 parent  (cost=0.00..144247.77 rows=9999977 width=4)
                      ->  Seq Scan on children_2 parent  (cost=0.00..144247.77 rows=9999977 width=4)

The 9.1 plan is:

  Limit  (cost=113.75..116.19 rows=50 width=4)
    ->  Result  (cost=113.75..975036.98 rows=20002400 width=4)
          ->  Merge Append  (cost=113.75..975036.98 rows=20002400 width=4)
                Sort Key: public.parent.a
                ->  Sort  (cost=113.73..119.73 rows=2400 width=4)
                      Sort Key: public.parent.a
                      ->  Seq Scan on parent  (cost=0.00..34.00 rows=2400 width=4)
                ->  Index Scan Backward using test_1 on children_1 parent  (cost=0.00..303940.35 rows=10000000 width=4)
                ->  Index Scan Backward using test_2 on children_2 parent  (cost=0.00..303940.35 rows=10000000 width=4)

The 9.0 plan means: I'll take every record from every table, sort them, and then return the 50 biggest.

The 9.1 plan means: I'll take records from every table sorted, using their indexes if available, merge them as they come and return the 50 first ones.

It was a very common trap, this type of queries became dramatically slower when one was partitioning his/her data. And it was a bit tricky to work around this using a query rewrite.

  • hash algorithms can now be used for full outer joins, and for arrays.

This one can be demoed with a very simple example (for full outer joins):

 CREATE TABLE test1 (a int);
 CREATE TABLE test2 (a int);
 INSERT INTO test1 SELECT generate_series(1,100000);
 INSERT INTO test2 SELECT generate_series(100,1000);

So we have a big test1 and a small test2 table.

With 9.0, this query is done with this plan:

                                                         QUERY PLAN                                                        
  Merge Full Join  (cost=11285.07..11821.07 rows=100000 width=8) (actual time=330.092..651.618 rows=100000 loops=1)
    Merge Cond: (test1.a = test2.a)
    ->  Sort  (cost=11116.32..11366.32 rows=100000 width=4) (actual time=327.926..446.814 rows=100000 loops=1)
          Sort Key: test1.a
          Sort Method:  external sort  Disk: 1368kB
          ->  Seq Scan on test1  (cost=0.00..1443.00 rows=100000 width=4) (actual time=0.011..119.246 rows=100000 loops=1)
    ->  Sort  (cost=168.75..174.75 rows=2400 width=4) (actual time=2.156..3.208 rows=901 loops=1)
          Sort Key: test2.a
          Sort Method:  quicksort  Memory: 67kB
          ->  Seq Scan on test2  (cost=0.00..34.00 rows=2400 width=4) (actual time=0.009..1.066 rows=901 loops=1
  Total runtime: 733.368 ms

With 9.1, this is the new plan:

  Hash Full Join  (cost=24.27..1851.28 rows=100000 width=8) (actual time=2.536..331.547 rows=100000 loops=1)
    Hash Cond: (test1.a = test2.a)
    ->  Seq Scan on test1  (cost=0.00..1443.00 rows=100000 width=4) (actual time=0.014..119.884 rows=100000 loops=1)
    ->  Hash  (cost=13.01..13.01 rows=901 width=4) (actual time=2.505..2.505 rows=901 loops=1)
          Buckets: 1024  Batches: 1  Memory Usage: 32kB
          ->  Seq Scan on test2  (cost=0.00..13.01 rows=901 width=4) (actual time=0.017..1.186 rows=901 loops=1)
  Total runtime: 412.735 ms

The 9.0 plan does 2 sorts. The 9.1 only needs to create a hash on the smallest table.

Runtime is divided by almost 2 here. Another very interesting property is that the new plan has a much smaller startup cost: the first row is returned after 2 milliseconds, where it takes 330ms to return the first one using the old plan.

 SELECT * from test1 full outer join test2 using (a) LIMIT 10

takes 330ms with 9.0, and 3ms with 9.1.


  • Auto-tuning of wal_buffers.

The wal_buffers setting is now auto-tuned when set at -1, its new default value. It's automatically set at 1/32 of shared_buffers, with a maximum at 16MB. One less parameter to take care of…

  • Record last reset in database and background writer-level statistics views.

You can now know when stats have been reset last. For a database, for instance:

 SELECT datname, stats_reset FROM pg_stat_database;
   datname  |          stats_reset          
  template1 | 
  template0 | 
  postgres  | 2011-05-11 19:22:05.946641+02
  marc      | 2011-05-11 19:22:09.133483+02
  • Columns showing the number of vacuum and analyze operations in pg_stat_*_tables views.

It's now much easier to know which table get a lot of autovacuum attention:

 SELECT relname, last_vacuum, vacuum_count, last_autovacuum, autovacuum_count, last_analyze, analyze_count, last_autoanalyze, autoanalyze_count
 FROM pg_stat_user_tables 
 WHERE relname in ('test1','test2');
  relname | last_vacuum | vacuum_count | last_autovacuum | autovacuum_count | last_analyze | analyze_count |       last_autoanalyze        | autoanalyze_count 
  test1   |             |            0 |                 |                0 |              |             0 | 2011-05-22 15:51:50.48562+02  |                 1
  test2   |             |            0 |                 |                0 |              |             0 | 2011-05-22 15:52:50.325494+02 |                 2

SQL and PL/PgSQL features

  • Group by can guess some missing columns
 CREATE TABLE entities (entity_name text primary key, entity_address text);
 CREATE TABLE employees (employee_name text primary key, entity_name text references entities (entity_name));
 INSERT INTO entities VALUES ('HR', 'address1');
 INSERT INTO entities VALUES ('SALES', 'address2');
 INSERT INTO employees VALUES ('Smith', 'HR');
 INSERT INTO employees VALUES ('Jones', 'HR');
 INSERT INTO employees VALUES ('Taylor', 'SALES');
 INSERT INTO employees VALUES ('Brown', 'SALES');

One can now write:

 SELECT count(*), entity_name, address
 FROM entities JOIN employees using (entity_name)
 GROUP BY entity_name;
  count | entity_name | address  
      2 | HR          | address1
      2 | SALES       | address2

In 9.0, grouping on address would have been required too. As entity_name is the primary key of entities, address is functionally dependant on entity_name, so it's obvious PostgreSQL must group on it too.

  • New values can be added to an existing enum type via ALTER TYPE.

Until 9.0, one had to drop the type and create a new one. And that meant dropping all columns using that type. That was a major reason blocking adoption of the ENUM type.

  • Composite types can be modified through ALTER TYPE ... ADD/DROP/ALTER/RENAME ATTRIBUTE.

Let's create a simple composite data type:

 =#CREATE TYPE package AS (destination text);

Let's create a dummy function using this data type:

 =#CREATE FUNCTION package_exists (pack package) RETURNS boolean LANGUAGE plpgsql AS $$
   RETURN true;

Test this function:

 =#SELECT package_exists(row('test'));

It works.

Now we can alter the 'package' type:

 =#ALTER TYPE package ADD ATTRIBUTE received boolean;

The type has changed:

 =#SELECT package_exists(row('test'));
 ERROR:  cannot cast type record to package
 LINE 1: SELECT package_exists(row('test'));
 DETAIL:  Input has too few columns.
 =# SELECT package_exists(row('test',true));

This will probably be used mostly to create a primary or unique key without locking a table for too long:

 =# ALTER TABLE test_pk ADD primary key using index idx_pk;

We'll get a write lock on test_pk only for the duration of the ALTER TABLE. The rest of the work will be done without disrupting users' work.

This can also be used to rebuild primary key indices without locking the table during the whole rebuild:

 =# BEGIN ;
 =# ALTER TABLE test_pk ADD primary key using index idx_pk2;
 =# COMMIT ;
  • ALTER TABLE ... SET DATA TYPE can avoid table rewrites in appropriate cases.

For example, converting a varchar column to text no longer requires a rewrite of the table.

However, increasing the length constraint on a varchar column still requires a table rewrite (excerpt from the Changelog).

This is self explaining. There are still cases to be covered, but this is a work in progress.


You won't get an error if the table already exists, only a NOTICE.

Be aware that it won't check your new definition is the one already in place.

  • New ENCODING option to COPY TO/FROM. This allows the encoding of the COPY file to be specified separately from client encoding.
 COPY test1 TO stdout ENCODING 'latin9'

will now convert the encoding directly. No need to set client_encoding before the COPY anymore.

  • INSTEAD OF triggers on views.

This feature can be used to implement fully updatable views. Here is an example.

Let's continue on the employees/entities example.

 =#CREATE VIEW emp_entity AS SELECT employee_name, entity_name, address
 FROM entities JOIN employees USING (entity_name);

To make this view updatable in 9.0, one had to write rules. This could rapidly turn into a nightmare, as rules are quite complex to write, and even harder to debug. This is how it was done: rules update

Now we can do this with a trigger. Here is an example (there is only the INSERT part here):

 =#CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION dml_emp_entity () RETURNS trigger LANGUAGE plpgsql AS $$
   vrecord RECORD;
     -- Does the record exist in entity ?
     SELECT entity_name,address INTO vrecord FROM entities WHERE entity_name=NEW.entity_name;
       INSERT INTO entities (entity_name,address) VALUES (NEW.entity_name, NEW.address);
       IF vrecord.address != NEW.address THEN
       RAISE EXCEPTION 'There already is a record for % in entities. Its address is %. It conflics with your address %',
                       NEW.entity_name, vrecord.address, NEW.address USING ERRCODE = 'unique_violation';
       END IF;
     END IF; -- Nothing more to do, the entity already exists and is OK
     -- We now try to insert the employee data. Let's directly try an INSERT
       INSERT INTO employees (employee_name, entity_name) VALUES (NEW.employee_name, NEW.entity_name);
       EXCEPTION WHEN unique_violation THEN
         RAISE EXCEPTION 'There is already an employee with this name %', NEW.employee_name USING ERRCODE = 'unique_violation';
   RETURN NEW; -- The trigger succeeded
   END IF;

We just have to declare our trigger now:


There are other advantages: a rule only rewrites the query. With the trigger, we added some logic, we could send more useful error messages. It makes it much easier to understand what went wrong. We also could trap exceptions. We have all the advantages of triggers over rules.


It's become much easier to loop over an array in PL/PgSQL. Until now, the FOR construct only worked to loop in recordsets (query results).

It can now be used to loop in arrays.

Before 9.1, it could be written like this:

 =# CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION test_array (parray int[]) RETURNS int LANGUAGE plpgsql AS $$
   vcounter int :=0;
   velement int;
   FOR velement IN SELECT unnest (parray)
   RETURN vcounter;


 =# CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION test_array (parray int[]) RETURNS int LANGUAGE plpgsql AS $$
   vcounter int :=0;
   velement int;
   FOREACH velement IN ARRAY parray
   RETURN vcounter;

It's much easier to read, and it's faster to run.

There is another benefit: we can slice the array when it is multidimensional. Here is an example, directly from the documentation:

 =#CREATE FUNCTION scan_rows(int[]) RETURNS void AS $$
   x int[];
     RAISE NOTICE 'row = %', x;
 $$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;
 =#SELECT scan_rows(ARRAY[[1,2,3],[4,5,6],[7,8,9],[10,11,12]]);
 NOTICE:  row = {1,2,3}
 NOTICE:  row = {4,5,6}
 NOTICE:  row = {7,8,9}
 NOTICE:  row = {10,11,12}
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